Interested in learning more about relationships and happiness? Click on each citation to read the abstract of each study.



Social Support in Relation to Job and Family

Adams, G. A., King, L. A., & King, D. W. (1996). Relationships of job and family involvement, family social support, and work–family conflict with job and life satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(4), 411.

Booth, A. L., & Van Ours, J. C. (2008). Job satisfaction and family happiness: The part-time work puzzle*. The Economic Journal, 118(526), F77–F99.

Cameron, A., Kraus, M. W., Galinsky, A. D., & Keltner, D. (2012). The Local-Ladder Effect: Social Status and Subjective Well-Being Psychological Science. 23(7), 764-771.

Caprariello, P. A. & Reis, H. T. (2013). To do, to have, or to share? Valuing experiences over material possessions depends on the involvement of others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.104(2), 199-215. doi:

Cohen, S., & Wills, T. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98(2), 310-157. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.98.2.310

Ernst Kossek, E., & Ozeki, C. (1998). Work–family conflict, policies, and the job–life satisfaction relationship: A review and directions for organizational behavior–human resources research. Journal of applied psychology, 83(2), 139-149.

Greenhaus, J. H., Collins, K. M., & Shaw, J. D. (2003). The relation between work–family balance and quality of life. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63(3), 510–531. doi:10.1016/S0001-8791(02)00042-8.

Loscocco, K., & Spitze, G. (1990). Working Conditions, Social Support, and the Well-Being of Female and Male Factory Worker. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 31, 313–327.

Park, N. & Peterson, C. (2006). Character Strengths and Happiness among Young Children: Content Analysis of Parental Descriptions Journal of Happiness Studies. 7(3), 323–341. doi: 10.1007/s10902-005-3648-6

Ryan, R. M., Bernstein, J. H., & Brown W. K. (2010). Weekends, Work, and Well-Being: Psychological Need Satisfactions and Day of the Week Effects on Mood, Vitality, and Physical Symptoms. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. Vol. 29(1), 95-122. doi: 10.1521/jscp.2010.29.1.95

Rüesch, P., Graf, J., Meyer, P. C., Rössler, W., & Hell, D. (2004). Occupation, social support and quality of life in persons with schizophrenic or affective disorders. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 39(9), 686–694. doi:10.1007/s00127-004-0812-y

Culture and Social Support

Chan, Y. K., & Lee, R. P. L. (2006). Network Size, Social Support and Happiness in Later Life: A Comparative Study of Beijing and Hong Kong. Journal of Happiness Studies, 7(1), 87–112. doi:10.1007/s10902-005-1915-1

Kim, H. S., Sherman, D. K., & Taylor, S. E. (2008). Culture and social support. American Psychologist, 63(6), 518–526. doi:10.1037/0003-066X

Lu, L. & Argyle, M. (1991). Happiness and Cooperation. Personality and Individual Differences 12(10), 1019-1030.

Lu, L., & Gilmour, R. (2004). Culture and conceptions of happiness: Individual oriented and social oriented SWB. Journal of Happiness Studies, 5(3), 269–291.

Uchida, Y., Norasakkunkit, V., & Kitayama, S. (2004). Cultural constructions of happiness: Theory and emprical evidence. Journal of Happiness Studies, 5(3), 223–239.

Social Support and Health

Anderson, C., Kraus, M. K., Galinsky, A. D., & Keltner, D. (2012). The Local-Ladder Effect: Social Status and Subjective Well-Being. Psychological Science. 23(7), 764-771.

Blixen, C. E., & Kippes, C. (1999). Depression, social support, and quality of life in older adults with osteoarthritis. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 31(3), 221–226.

Burgoyne, R., & Renwick, R. (2004). Social support and quality of life over time among adults living with HIV in the HAART era. Social Science & Medicine, 58(7), 1353–1366. doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(03)00314-9

Cramm, J. M., Hartgerink, J. M., de Vreede, P. L., Bakker, T. J., Steyerberg, E. W., Mackenbach, J. P., & Nieboer, A. P. (2012). The relationship between older adults’ self-management abilities, well-being and depression. European Journal of Ageing. 9(4), 353-360.

Edmondson, Olivia, J. H. & MacLeod, A. K. (2015). Psychological Well-Being and Anticipated Positive Personal Events: Their Relationship to Depression. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy. 22, 418–425. doi: 10.1002/cpp.1911

Helgeson, V. S. (2003). Social support and quality of life. Quality of Life Research, 12(1), 25–31.

Karademas, E. C. (2006). Self-efficacy, social support and well-being: The mediating role of optimism. Personality and Individual Differences, 40(6), 1281–1290. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2005.10.019

Lakey, B. & Oreheck, E. (2011). Relational regulation theory: A new approach to explain the link between perceived social support and mental health. Psychological Review.118(3), 482-495. doi:

Linares, L., Jauregui, P., Herrero-Fernandez, D., & Estevez, A. (2016). Mediationg Role of Mindfulness as a Trait Between Attachment Styles and Depressive Symptoms. Journal of Interdisciplinary and Applied Psychology. 50, 881-896.

Macaskill, A. (2012). A feasibility study of psychological strengths and well-being assessment in individuals living with recurrent depression. The Journal of Positive Psychology. 7(5) 372-386.

Newsom, J. T., & Schulz, R. (1996). Social support as a mediator in the relation between functional status and quality of life in older adults. Psychology and Aging, 11(1), 34. doi:10.1037/0882-7974.11.1.34

Street, H., Nathan, P., Durkin, K., Morling, J., Dzahari, M. A., Carson, J., & Durkin, E. (2009). Understanding the relationships between wellbeing, goal-setting and depression in children. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 38(3),155-161. doi: 10.1080/j.1440-1614.2004.01317.x

Turner, J. (1981). Social Support as a Contingency in Psychological Well-Being. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 22(4), 357–367.

Lack of Social Support

Cheng, H., & Furnham, A. (2002). Personality, peer relations, and self-confidence as predictors of happiness and loneliness. Journal of Adolescence, 25(3), 327–339.

Jackson, T., Soderlind, A. & Weiss, K. E. (2000). Personality traits and quality of relationships as predictors of future loneliness among American college students. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal 28(5), 463-470(8).

Newall, N. E. G., Chipperfield, J. G., Bailis, D. S., & Stewart, T. L. (2013). Consequences of loneliness on physical activity and mortality in older adults and the power of positive emotions. Health Psychology, 32(8), 921–924. doi:10.1037/a0029413

Orth-Gomér, K., Rosengren, A., & Wilhelmsen, L. (1993). Lack of social support and incidence of coronary heart disease in middle-aged Swedish men. Psychosomatic Medicine, 55(1), 37–43.

Marital Satisfaction

Frech, A., & Williams, K. (2007). Depression and the Psychological Benefits of Entering Marriage Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 48(2), 149-163. doi: 10.1177/002214650704800204

Smith, D. A., Breiding, M. J., & Papp, L. M. (2012). Depressive moods and marital happiness: Within-person synchrony, moderators, and meaning. Journal of Family Psychology, 26(3), 338–347. doi:10.1037/a0028404

Stack, S., & Eshleman, J. R. (1998). Marital status and happiness: A 17-nation study. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 60(2) 527–536.

Friends and Family

Brown, S. L., Nesse, R. M., Vinokur, A. D., & Smith, D. M. (2003). Providing social support may be more beneficial than receiving ot: Results rrom a prospective study of mortality. Psychological Science, 14(4), 320–327. doi:10.1111/1467-9280.14461

Diener, E., & Seligman, M. (2002). Very pappy people. Psychological Science, 13(1). doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.00415

Fowler, J. H., & Christakis, N. A. (2008). Dynamic spread of happiness in a large social network: longitudinal analysis over 20 years in the Framingham Heart Study. BMJ, 337(dec04 2), a2338–a2338. doi:10.1136/bmj.a2338

Helsen, M., Vollebergh, W., & Meeus, W. (2000). Social support from parents and friends and emotional problems in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29(3), 319–335.

Kim, J., & Lee, J.-E. R. (2011). The Facebook paths to happiness: Effects of the number of Facebook friends and self-presentation on subjective well-being. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14(6), 359–364. doi:10.1089/cyber.2010.0374

Krause, N. (2002). Church-based social support and health in old age exploring variations by race. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 57(6), S332–S347.

Larsen, R., Mannell, R., & Zuzanek, J. (1986). Daily well-being of older adults with friends and family. Psychology and Aging 1(2), 117-126. doi:10.1037/0992-7974.1.2.117

Powdthavee, N. (2008). Putting a price tag on friends, relatives, and neighbours: Using surveys of life satisfaction to value social relationships. Journal of Socio-economics, 37(4), 1459–1480.

Social Media Use and Wellbeing

Akın A1. (2012). The relationships between Internet addiction, subjective vitality, and subjective happiness. Cyberpsycholgy, Behavior, and Social Networking.15(8), 404-410. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2011.0609.

Lin, L. Y., Sidani, J. E., Shensa, A., Radovic, A., Miller E., Colditz, J. B., … & Primack, B. A. (2016). Association between social media use and depression among U.S. young adults. Depression and Anxiety. 33, 323–331. doi: 10.1002/da.22466

Nabi, L R., Prestin, A., & So, J. (2013). Facebook Friends with (Health) Benefits? Exploring Social Network Site Use and Perceptions of Social Support, Stress, and Well-Being Cyberpsychology, Behavior, And Social Networking. 16(10), 721-727. DOI: 10.1089/cyber.2012.0521

Seabrook, E. M., Kern, M. L., and Rickard, N. S. (2016). Social Networking Sites, Depression, and Anxiety: A Systematic Review. JMIR Ment Health 3(4): e50 DOI:10.2196/mental.5842

Howard, L., and Sharon, Shiovitz-E. (2011). Social network type and subjective well-being in a national sample of older Americans. Gerontologist. 51(3):379-88.

General Construct

Lakey, B., & Orehek, E. (2011). Relational regulation theory: A new approach to explain the link between perceived social support and mental health. Psychological Review. 118(3), 482-495.

Lyubomirsky, S., King, L., & Diener, E. (2005). The benefits of frequent positive affect: Does happiness lead to success? Psychological Bulletin, 131(6), 803–855. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.131.6.803

Myers, D. G., & Diener, E. (1995). Who is happy? Psychological science, 6(1), 10–19.

Nistor, A. A. (2011). Developments on the Happiness Issue: a Review of the Research on Subjective Well-being and Flow Scientific Journal of Humanistic Studies, 3(4), 58-66.

McNulty, J. K., & Fincham, F. D. (2012) Beyond positive psychology? Toward a contextual view of psychological processes and well-being. American Psychologist, 67(2), 101-110. doi:


Lack of Social Support

Stillman, T. F., Baumeister, R. F., Lambert, N. M., Crescioni, A. W., DeWall, C. N., & Fincham, F. D. (2009). Alone and without purpose: Life loses meaning following social exclusion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45(4), 686–694. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2009.03.007

Friends and Family

Abbey, A., Abramis, D. J., & Caplan, R. D. (1985). Effects of different sources of social support and social conflict on emotional well-being. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 6(2), 111–129. doi:10.1207/s15324834basp0602_2

Relationships with nature and PWB

Ball, K., Tampirio, A. & Crawford, D. (2006). Understanding environmental influences on nutrition and physical activity behaviors: where should we look and what should we count? International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 3(33) doi: doi:10.1186/1479-5868-3-33

Capaldi, C. A., Passmore, H.-A., Nisbet, E. K., Zelenski, J. M., & Dopko, R. L. (2015).. Flourishing in nature: A review of the benefits of connecting with nature and its application as a wellbeing intervention. International Journal of Wellbeing, 5(4), 1-16. doi: doi:10.5502/ijw.v5i4.449

Davis, D. M., and Hayes, S. (2011).. What Are the Benefits of Mindfulness? A Practice Review of Psychotherapy-Related Research. Psychotherapy, 48(2), 198–208. DOI: 10.1037/a0022062

Hoot, R. E., & Friedman, H. (2011). Connectedness and environmental behavior: Sense of interconnectedness and pro-environmental behavior. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 30 (1-2), 89–100.

Grinde, B., & Patil, G. G. (2009). Biophilia: Does Visual Contact with Nature Impact on Health and Well-Being? International Journal of Environmental research and Public Health, 6(9), 2332–2343.doi:  10.3390/ijerph6092332

Joireman, J. A., Lasane, T. P., Bennett, J., Richards, D., & Solaimani, S. (2001). Integrating social value orientation and the consideration of future consequences within the extended norm activation model of proenvironmental behaviour. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 133-155. DOI: 10.1348/014466601164731

Klien, D. A; Goldenring, M. J., & Adelman W. P. (2014).. HEADDS 3.0: The psychosocial interview for adolescents updated for a new century fueled by media. Contemporary Pediatrics.

Kahriman-Ozturk, D., Olgan, R., & Tuncer, G. (2012). A qualitative study on Turkish preschool children’s environmental attitudes through ecocentrism and anthropocentrism. International Journal of Science Education, 34(4), 629-650. doi:

Mayer, F.S., & Frantz, C.M. (2004).. The connectedness to nature scale: A measure of individuals’ feeling in community with nature. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 24, 503–515.

Passmore, H.-A., & Holder, M. D. (2016).. Noticing nature: Individual and social benefits of a two-week intervention. Journal of Positive Psychology, 1-10. doi:

Pereira, M. & Forster, P. (2015).. The Relationship between Connectedness to Nature, Environmental Values, and Pro-environmental Behaviours. Reinvention: an International Journal of Undergraduate Research, 8(2).

Restall, B. & Conrad, E. (2014).. A literature review of connectedness to nature and its potential for environmental management. Journal of Environmental Management, 1-15. doi:

Rideout, B. E. (2014). The liberal arts and environmental awareness: Exploring endorsement of an environmental worldview in college students. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education 3(3), 59-76. Doi: 10.12973/ijese.2014.203a

Steg, L. & Vlek, C. (2009).. Encouraging pro-environmental behaviour: An integrative review and research agenda. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 29, 309–317. doi:

Stern, P. C., Dietz, T., Abel, T., Guagnano, G. A., & Kalof, L. (1999).. A value-belief-norm theory of support for social movements: The case of environmentalism. Human Ecology Review, 6 (2), 81–97.

Wells, N. M., & Yang, Y. (2008).. Neighborhood Design and Walking: A Quasi-Experimental Longitudinal Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34(4), 313–318. doi:

Zelenski, M. J. & Nisbet, E. K. (2014).. Happiness and Feeling Connected: The Distinct Role of Nature Relatedness. Environment and Behavior, 46(1), 3-23.